Mandela

Few men in history have fought so hard and endured so much in the course of a lifetime as Nelson Mandela. His story is one of struggle and oppression, dignity and hope over despair, self-discipline and respect over persecution and hate. This dramatic story never told before on film — about a man who came from tribal origins, fled his home to avoid an arranged marriage, was alone and broke at 23, trained as a boxer, and established the first black law firm in South America. From its inception in 1993, the film was to be the only official film biography of Nelson Mandela. Having sanctioned the project, Mandela himself granted unprecedented and exclusive access to the cameras.
CAPTIONING MADE POSSIBLE BY
POLYGRAM FILMED ENTERTAINMENT
Children:
♪ MANDELA! ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
Man: ♪ GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ YOU GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ YOU GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ YOU GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ YOU GOTTA MAKE A VOTE ♪
Woman: ♪ 400 YEARS
OF AFRICAN HISTORY ♪
Chorus:
♪ MOTHERLAND,
CRY NO MORE ♪
♪ 400 YEARS
OF AFRICAN MISERY ♪
♪ MOTHERLAND,
CRY NO MORE ♪
♪ 400 YEARS
OF AFRICAN SLAVERY ♪
♪ THE GREAT ENEMY
OF MAN’S SOUL ♪
♪ BETTER DRAW YOUR SWORD,
WRONG! ♪
♪ WHEN THE EVIL’S
IN THE CLOSED MIND ♪
♪ ALONG COMES A MAN
OF VISION ♪
♪ THINKING ABOUT
THE EVIL MEN’S MIND ♪
♪ APARTHEID IS GONE NOW ♪
Man:
VOTE FOR MANDELA!
Crowd: BLACK PRESIDENT!
BLACK PRESIDENT!
BLACK PRESIDENT!
BLACK PRESIDENT!
BLACK PRESIDENT!
NOW IS THE TIME!
NOW IS THE TIME!
NOW IS THE TIME!
NOW IS THE TIME!
[TRIBAL MUSIC PLAYING]
Narrator:
OVER 1,000 YEARS AGO,
AFRICANS MIGRATED SOUTH.
THE XHOSA NATION
SETTLED WITH THEIR CATTLE
IN THE EASTERN PART OF WHAT
IS NOW CALLED SOUTH AFRICA.
EUROPEAN SETTLERS ARRIVED
IN THE MIDDLE
OF THE 17th CENTURY.
THEY FOUGHT THE AFRICANS
AND DROVE THEM
OFF THEIR LAND,
SEWING THE SEEDS OF HATRED
THAT LASTED FOR CENTURIES.
IT WAS HERE
IN THE EASTERN CAPE
THAT NELSON MANDELA
WAS BORN IN 1918.
HE WAS OF ROYAL BLOOD,
A DESCENDENT
OF THEMBU CHIEFS.
PART OF THE XHOSA NATION,
HE WAS CALLED…
ROLIHLAHLA MADIBA
DALIBUNGA MANDELA.

Nelson Mandela:
WHEN I WENT TO SCHOOL,
THE LADY TEACHER,
MISS MDINGANE…
ASKED,
“WHAT IS YOUR NAME?”
I TOLD HER MY AFRICAN NAME,
ROLIHLAHLA.

SHE SAID,
“NO, I DON’T WANT THAT ONE.
YOU MUST HAVE
A CHRISTIAN NAME.”
SO I SAID,
“NO, I DON’T HAVE ONE.”
SHE SAYS, “YOU ARE–
FROM TODAY, YOU ARE
GOING TO BE NELSON.”
THAT’S HOW I
ADDED THE NAME NELSON.
NOT GIVEN BY MY PARENTS.
IN FACT, MY MOTHER WHO
WAS NEVER GOING TO SCHOOL,
TOOK ME ONE DAY TO A DOCTOR.
AND THE DOCTOR ASKED,
“NOW, WHAT IS HIS NAME?”
SHE SAID,
“NEY-LEE-SEELA.
HIS NAME
IS NEY-LEE-SEELA.”
BECAUSE IT WAS
A WHITE NAME, YOU SEE,
AND THEY DIDN’T–COULDN’T
PRONOUNCE IT PROPERLY.
Mandela: THESE GRAVES
MEAN A GREAT DEAL TO ME…
UH, BECAUSE MY BELOVED
PARENTS LIE THERE.
AND, UH, IT AROUSES
A GREAT DEAL OF EMOTION
FOR ME TO BE HERE,
BECAUSE, UH…
IT WOULD BE FAIR TO SAY
PART OF MYSELF
LIES BURIED HERE.
[MEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[SPEAKING NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[WOMEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: MY FATHER
WAS A POLYGAMIST
WITH 4 WIVES, 9 CHILDREN.
I GREW UP
IN THAT ATMOSPHERE
WHERE WE PLAYED TOGETHER,
FOUGHT AGAINST ONE ANOTHER,
BUT ATE FROM ONE DISH.
WE GREW UP IN THE VELDT,
LOOKING AFTER STOCK–
SHEEP, GOATS, HORSES,
AND CATTLE.
ALSO, DURING THE DAY,
WE DO ALL SORTS OF THINGS.
YOU HUNT RABBITS, BIRDS.
ONE OF OUR FAVORITE PASTIMES
WAS STICK FIGHTING.
YOU HAVE ONE STICK
ON THE LEFT HAND
TO PARRY THE BLOWS
FROM THE OTHER BOYS.
AND THEN
ON THE RIGHT HAND,
A STICK TO HIT WITH.
BY THE WAY, ONE OF THE MARKS
OF THE STICKS I STILL HAVE.
I THINK I STILL HAVE.
YEAH, THERE IT IS.
I WAS HIT HERE
BY ANOTHER BOY.
MY MOTHER,
SHE WAS MY FIRST FRIEND
IN THE PROPER SENSE
OF THE WORD.
SHE WAS NOT, UH,
AN EMOTIONAL PERSON.
SHE WAS COMPLETELY
CONTROLLED AND CALM
AND AT PEACE
WITH HERSELF
AND WITH THE WORLD.
AND I HAD A GREAT DEAL
OF RESPECT FOR HER.
A LADY WHO NEVER
WENT TO SCHOOL,
WHO COULD NOT
READ AND WRITE,
BUT WAS ABLE TO LISTEN
TO THE ENLIGHTENED CHRISTIANS
IN THE VILLAGE
AND BECAME A CHRISTIAN
IN SPITE OF THE FACT
THAT MY FATHER WOULDN’T
COME NEAR CHRISTIANITY.
SHE WAS APPROACHED
BY THOSE NEIGHBORS
WHO WERE, ACCORDING TO
THE STANDARD OF THE DAY,
A BIT EDUCATED,
AND ASKED THAT I SHOULD
BE SENT TO SCHOOL.
WHEN I WENT TO SCHOOL,
MY FATHER THEN GAVE ME
HIS RIDING BRITCHES,
AND HE CUT IT,
AND, UH, THEN, UH,
THEY HAD, UM…
A…A TWINE…
WHICH I USED AS A BELT.
AND ALSO HE GAVE ME
HIS SHIRT.
UH, THAT IS HOW I
WENT TO THE SCHOOL
FOR THE FIRST TIME.
THEN ONE EVENING,
I SAW MY FATHER
LYING ON HIS BACK
AND 2 LADIES
ATTENDING TO HIM.
AND I SUBSEQUENTLY LEARNED
THAT HE WAS ILL.
[MABEL MANDELA
SPEAKING NATIVE LANGUAGE]
THEN ONE EVENING…
HE SUDDENLY CALLED…
UH, TO THE YOUNG WIFE…
AND, UH, ASKED HER
TO BRING, UH…
HIS PIPE AND TOBACCO.
BUT BECAUSE
HE WAS COUGHING,
UH, MY PARENTS–NO.
MY MOTHER WAS CONSULTED
AND DECIDED NOT
TO GIVE HIM THE PIPE,
BUT HE INSISTED.
AND, UH, NOW, THAT
I REMEMBER VERY CLEARLY,
CALLING UPON, UH,
THE YOUNGEST WIFE
NODAYIMANI.
“GIVE ME MY TOBACCO!
GIVE ME MY PIPE!”
EVENTUALLY, THEY COULDN’T
RESIST THE PRESSURE
AND GAVE HIM THE PIPE
AND LIGHTED IT,
AND HE STARTED SMOKING.
THEN HE BECAME QUIET.
FOR SOME TIME,
HE STARTED SMOKING.
AND I JUST SAW
THE PIPE DROPPED.
THAT’S HOW HE PASSED AWAY.
I WENT TO MGHEKEZWENI
WHEN I WAS 9.
THE REGENT,
DAVID DALINDYEBO,
BROUGHT ME TO HIS PLACE
SO THAT HE COULD
BRING ME UP.
HE HAD 2 CHILDREN–
JUSTICE, WHO WAS GOING TO BE
THE HEIR TO THE CHIEFTAINCY,
AND A DAUGHTER
CALLED NOMAFU.
HE BROUGHT ME UP
AS HIS OWN CHILD.
HE WANTED ME TO BE
THE CHIEF COUNSELOR
TO THE KING.
THAT WAS WHAT
I WAS GROOMED FOR.
[PEOPLE CLAPPING]
[SINGING]
NOW, YOU WANTED
THE HOUSE…
THE HOUSE WHERE
I GREW UP.
THAT IS THE ONE.
AND, UH,
WE’LL JUST GO INSIDE.
I SLEPT HERE
WITH THE FUTURE CHIEF
OF THIS AREA,
JUSTICE MTHIKRAKRA,
THE FATHER
OF THE PRESENT CHIEF.
HE WAS A SPORTSMAN.
HE PLAYED RUGBY,
HE PLAYED SOCCER,
HE PLAYED CRICKET.
UH, HE WAS 4 YEARS OLDER
THAN MYSELF.
HE WAS A PERSON
WHO LOVED ME VERY MUCH.
I GREW UP
IN A COURT.
THIS WAS THE ROYAL COURT,
THE KING’S COURT.
SO, YOU WERE DEALING
WITH ELDERS OF THE TRIBE
WHO WERE EXPERTS
IN TRIBAL CUSTOM AND LAW.
[PEOPLE CLAPPING
AND SINGING]
AS A BOY,
I WOULD BRING FOOD TO THEM,
I WOULD BRING A BEER
TO THEM,
AND I WOULD PERFORM
ERRANDS FOR THEM.
IT WAS FROM THEM
THAT I HEARD
ABOUT THE BATTLES
OF OLDEN TIMES.
THE BATTLES
THAT WERE FOUGHT
FROM THE FISH RIVER
BY THE XHOSAS.
THE SERIES OF WARS
OVER 100 YEARS.
OUR PEOPLE
FIGHTING WITH SPEARS
AGAINST GUNPOWDER.
THEY TOLD THEIR STORIES
OF THE BRAVERY
OF THE TRADITIONAL LEADERS
WHO LED THOSE BATTLES.
[SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Narrator: TO BECOME
AN ADVISOR TO THE KING,
NELSON NEEDED
HIGHER EDUCATION.
AND WITH THE SUPPORT
OF THE CHIEF,
HE WENT TO THE BEST SCHOOLS
AVAILABLE TO BLACKS.
Mandela: THE FIRST COLLEGE
I WENT TO,
I CONCENTRATED
ON MY STUDIES.
THAT IS WHERE I
DID MY STANDARD 6–
UH, FORM 1,
FORM 2, FORM 3–
IN CLARKEBURY,
THE ONE WE VISITED.
[STUDENTS SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: I HAVE GOT
A SPECIAL INTEREST
IN ALL STUDENTS,
ALL TEACHERS
IN THIS COUNTRY.
IT IS ABSOLUTELY IMPORTANT
THAT YOU HAVE
THE KNOWLEDGE
TO SERVE YOUR COUNTRY
AND YOUR PEOPLE.
OUT OF YOU,
WE ARE GOING TO HAVE
MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT,
AMBASSADORS,
PRIME MINISTERS.
YOU ARE GOING TO
COMMAND OUR ARMIES.
EVERY ONE OF YOU
ARE POTENTIAL LEADERS,
WHO, IF THEY TAKE
THE CHALLENGE,
WILL CHANGE THE FACE
OF SOUTH AFRICAN HISTORY.
AND THAT IS MY DREAM.
DIYABOLE!
[SPEAKING NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[APPLAUSE]
THEN I WENT TO HEALDTOWN
IN THE CISKEI FOR MATRIC.
NOW, THE PRINCIPAL,
DR. WELLINGTON,
HE USED TO ADDRESS US
AND SAY…
“I AM…
“A DESCENDENT…
OF THE FAMOUS
DUKE OF WELLINGTON…”
“WHO CRUSHED NAPOLEON…
“AND SAVED CIVILIZATION…
“FOR EUROPE…
AND FOR YOU, THE NATIVES.”
AND THOSE DAYS,
WE CLAPPED, YOU SEE.
IT WAS WHEN I WAS
IN HEALDTOWN
THAT THE POET MQHAYI
VISITED THE INSTITUTION.
AND IN THE COURSE
OF RECITING,
HE CALLED ALL THE NATIONS
OF THE WORLD TO COME BEFORE HIM
BECAUSE HE WAS GOING
TO DIVIDE THE STARS.
AND HE SAYS,
“YOU EUROPEANS…
“THE ENGLISH,
THE GERMANS, THE FRENCH,
“I GIVE YOU
THE CONSTELLATION
“BECAUSE IT IS
THE LARGEST GROUP
OF STARS IN CREATION.
“I AM GIVING YOU
THIS GROUP OF STARS
“BECAUSE YOU ARE
GREEDY NATIONS.
“YOU QUARREL OVER PLENTY.
“YOU HAVE STARTED WARS,
“WHICH HAVE CAUSED
BROAD SUFFERING AND GRIEF
TO MILLIONS OF PEOPLE
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.”
THEN HE CALLED THE NATIONS
OF ASIA AND AFRICA,
AND AT THE END OF IT,
HE SAYS,
“NOW YOU COME,
HOUSE OF XHOSA.”
[MANDELA SPEAKING
NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: IT IS THE CUSTOM
AMONG THE XHOSAS
THAT WHEN A BOY
REACHES A CERTAIN AGE,
HE SHOULD UNDERGO
CIRCUMCISION.
IT IS SO DEEPLY
ENTRENCHED…
THAT EVEN IN PRISON,
PRISONERS CIRCUMCISED
ONE ANOTHER.
I WAS 16 YEARS OF AGE
WHEN WE WERE TAKEN
TO THE CIRCUMCISION SCHOOL.
WE DISCARDED OUR CLOTHING,
AND WE WERE INSTRUCTED
TO SIT ON NEW BLANKETS
WITH OUR LEGS OPEN.
AND I HEARD
THE FIRST BOY SAYING,
“NDIYINDODA.”
“I AM A MAN…”
WHICH IS WHAT YOU’RE
SUPPOSED TO SAY THE MOMENT
THE EXPERT HAS CUT
YOUR FORESKIN.
IT IS AN ASSEGAI,
A SPEAR.
NOT STERILIZED.
NO ANESTHETIC.
IT DOES–CATCHES
YOUR FORESKIN
AND IN A QUICK MOVEMENT…
LIKE THIS…
AND, UH, BEFORE
I WAS AWARE OF IT,
THE OPERATION WAS OVER.
BUT THE PAIN HAD GONE
RIGHT INTO MY BONES,
INTO MY MARROW.
AND, UH,
AS THIS OPERATION
IS BEING CONDUCTED,
THE MEN ARE LOOKING
VERY CAREFULLY IN YOUR FACE
TO SEE WHAT YOUR REACTION
IS GOING TO BE
BECAUSE WHEN YOU SAY,
“I AM A MAN,”
UH, THEY WANTED
TO SEE IT THEMSELVES.
UH, THE BODY LANGUAGE
MUST ALSO SAY SO.
AND, UH, I MUST CONFESS
THAT, UH…
THE PAIN…
UH, PARALYZED ME
MOMENTARILY,
AND I WAS NOT
AS FORTHRIGHT AND STRONG
AS THE OTHER BOYS…
UH, THAT PRECEDED ME.
[SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: THEIR HUTS
HAD BEEN DESTROYED BY FIRE.
YOU HAVE BURIED
YOUR CHILDHOOD.
YOU HAVE ENTERED NOW…
THE PHASE…
OF A MAN.
A VERY
OUTSTANDING SPEECH
WAS MADE BY THE BROTHER
OF THE KING…
UH, CHIEF MELIGQILI.
HE ADDRESSED US AND SAID,
“WHAT A PLEASURE
“TO SEE SUCH YOUNG MEN
“WHO ARE NOW GOING TO HANDLE
THE AFFAIRS OF THE TRIBE.
“THERE ARE THOSE
WHO ARE GOING TO
GO BACK TO SCHOOL,
“BUT THEY WILL NEVER BE
ANYBODY IN THIS COUNTRY
“BECAUSE OF THE POLICY
OF THE WHITE MAN.
“THEY WILL BE SOLDIERS
“WHO WILL NEVER
BE ABLE TO FIGHT
“FOR THE FREEDOM
OF THEIR PEOPLE,
“BECAUSE THEY WILL
HAVE NO GUNS.
“NEVERTHELESS, WE EXPECT
“THAT NOW THAT YOU’RE MEN,
“YOU WILL FIGHT
“FOR THE LIBERATION
OF YOUR PEOPLE
“FROM THE BONDAGE WHICH
HAS BEEN CAST UPON US
BY THE WHITE MAN.”
[SWING MUSIC PLAYS]
I CAME TO JOHANNESBURG
IN APRIL, 1941,
RUNNING AWAY
FROM A FORCED MARRIAGE.
THE GIRL TO WHOM I WAS GOING
TO GET MARRIED WAS IN LOVE
WITH JUSTICE.
SO, THIS WAS A PROBLEM
FOR US,
AND WE DECIDED TO RUN
TO JOHANNESBURG.
Narrator:
IN THE 1940s,
JOHANNESBURG
WAS A BOOM TOWN.
MANDELA
AND HIS COUSIN JUSTICE
JOINED THOUSANDS OF AFRICANS
POURING INTO THE CITY
IN SEARCH OF WORK.
Mandela: WE WENT
TO THE CROWN MINES,
WHERE THE KING HAD
ARRANGED FOR JUSTICE
TO GET A JOB THERE.
THE INDUNA SAID,
“BUT THE KING DID
MENTION THIS TO ME,
BUT HE DID NOT ACTUALLY SAY
YOU WERE COMING.”
SO JUSTICE WAS VERY CLEVER,
AND HE SAYS,
“NO, HE SAID BECAUSE
HE HAD SPOKEN TO YOU,
“THERE WAS NO NEED
FOR AN INTRODUCTION
“AND THAT I COULD
BRING MY BROTHER
HERE TO GET A JOB.”
AND THE INDUNA SAID,
“OH, YES.
“UH, NO, THAT’S TRUE.
HE HAD MENTIONED, UH…
“UH, ABOUT YOU,
“AND WE’LL FIX UP
YOUR BROTHER,
“GIVE HIM A JOB AS A…
“A WATCHMAN,
UH, FOR A WEEK OR 2.
“ALSO, I’M PREPARING
A SPACE FOR HIM.
BUT YOU, YOU’LL GET
A JOB AS A CLERK.”
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[HEAVY BREATHING]
SO, ONE AFTERNOON,
THE INDUNA CAME
TO OUR OFFICE.
“JUSTICE!
WHERE’S THE LETTER
FROM THE KING?”
AND JUSTICE SAID, “BUT WE
HAD DISCUSSED THE MATTER
WITH YOU
WHEN WE ARRIVED.”
“NO, NO, NO, NO.
“THE KING COULD NEVER
ALLOW YOU TO COME HERE
“WITHOUT A WRITTEN LETTER
“AUTHORIZING YOU
TO COME HERE
“AND THAT I SHOULD
GIVE YOU A JOB.
WHERE IS THE LETTER
FROM THE KING?”
“NO, BUT, UH,
WE HAD EXPLAINED THIS–“
AND HE TOOK OUT
A TELEGRAM.
“HERE IS A TELEGRAM
FROM THE KING.
“SEND BOYS HOME
AT ONCE.

“SEND BOYS HOME AT ONCE.
YOU MUST GO HOME.”
Narrator: MANDELA DEFIED
THE CHIEF’S ORDER
TO GO HOME,
AND AT 23, WITH NO JOB
AND NO MONEY,
HE ENDED UP IN ALEXANDRA,
THE BLACK GHETTO
OUTSIDE JOHANNESBURG.
Mandela: I HIRED A ROOM
WITH A FAMILY, THE XHOMAS.
THIS WAS A VERY
KIND FAMILY
BECAUSE ON SUNDAYS,
THEY WOULD GIVE ME
A DISH AT LUNCH,
FOOD AT LUNCH–
MEAT, UH, RICE,
VEGETABLES.
AND, UH, IT WOULD
BE BROUGHT TO ME
BY, UH, ONE OF THE LADIES,
A VERY ATTRACTIVE GIRL.
[MEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: NOW, I WANTED
TO TAKE HER OUT,
BUT I WAS CONSCIOUS
THAT SHE’S IN A CLASS
FAR ABOVE ME.
HER BOYFRIEND WAS A CHAP
WITH A BEAUTIFUL
MODERN SUIT,
A HAT, YOU KNOW,
AND A SUIT
WITH A WAISTCOAT.
AND HE WOULD STAND OUTSIDE
THE YARD, YOU KNOW,
WAITING FOR HER
WITH HANDS, YOU KNOW,
IN HIS WAISTCOAT.
AND I WOULD LOOK
AT THIS CHAP,
AND I FEEL,
“WELL, I CAN’T COMPETE
WITH THIS FELLOW.”
[LAUGHS]
[WOMEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Narrator:
BLACK SOUTH AFRICANS
WERE NOT ALLOWED
TO LIVE IN JOHANNESBURG.
EVERY DAY, THEY POURED
INTO THE CITY TO WORK.
THE JOBS WERE MENIAL.
THE WAGES WERE PITIFUL.
THERE WERE VERY FEW
BLACK BUSINESSMEN.
AN EXCEPTION
WAS WALTER SISULU
WHO OWNED
A REAL ESTATE AGENCY.
Mandela: HE WAS YOUNG
AND, UH, IMPRESSIVE.
IT WAS THE FIRST TIME
FOR ME
TO SEE A BLACK MAN
WITH AN OFFICE…
AND WITH A TYPIST.
AND, UH, THE TIME
I ARRIVED,
THIS TYPIST, SHE WAS PLAYING
ON THE KEYBOARD, YOU KNOW,
AND THIS FASCINATED ME
VERY MUCH.
AND EVENTUALLY,
WE WERE CALLED INSIDE,
AND I MET THIS MAN.
I TOLD HIM THAT I WANTED
TO BE A LAWYER.
Walter Sisulu:
THAT INTERESTED ME
BECAUSE I HAD BEEN WORKING
WITH WHITE LAWYERS
IN MY AGENCY.
HERE WAS
A BUDDING YOUNG MAN
WHO COULD TAKE
A LEADING POSITION.
AND ONCE HE IS A LAWYER,
HE COULD BE THE GREAT ASSET
IN THE COMMUNITY.
Narrator: IN 1942,
MANDELA MOVED
INTO THE SISULU’S
TINY HOUSE IN SOWETO.
HE STUDIED LAW AT NIGHT,
AND EACH DAY, TOOK
THE TRAIN TO JOHANNESBURG,
WHERE HE WORKED AS A CLERK
IN A LAW OFFICE–
A JOB THAT SISULU
HAD GOT FOR HIM.
THROUGH SISULU,
HIS INTEREST
IN POLITICS GREW,
AND POLITICS
FOR SISULU MEANT
THE AFRICAN
NATIONAL CONGRESS.
THE ANC,
FOUNDED IN 1912,
WAS THE OLDEST AND LARGEST
BLACK POLITICAL PARTY
OPPOSING
WHITE MINORITY RULE.
IT WAS WHEN I CAME
INTO THE AFRICAN
NATIONAL CONGRESS
THAT I REALIZED
THAT, UH,
XHOSAS ARE ONLY A PART…
OF, UH,
THE AFRICAN PEOPLE–
THAT THE TASK OF THE ANC
WAS TO UNITE
THE AFRICAN PEOPLE,
AND OUT OF THEM,
BUILD A NATION.
Narrator: ANOTHER
MAJOR INFLUENCE
IN MANDELA’S LIFE
WAS OLIVER TAMBO,
A BRILLIANT STUDENT
AND DEBATER.
HE HAD ALSO SET HIS SIGHTS
ON BECOMING A LAWYER.
Anthony Sampson:
MANDELA WAS LESS
INTELLECTUALLY CONFIDENT.
TAMBO WAS ALWAYS
THE THINKER, THE REFLECTOR,
WHO MANDELA
ENORMOUSLY LOOKED UP TO.
THAT PARTNERSHIP
BETWEEN THE TWO,
I THINK,
WAS ALWAYS CRUCIAL,
MUCH MORE THAN
PEOPLE REALIZE–
THE COMBINATION OF THIS
RATHER MONKISH INTELLECTUAL,
VERY CHRISTIAN FIGURE
OF TAMBO
AND THE MORE MILITARY,
THE MORE, AS IT WERE,
PHYSICALLY CONFIDENT
AND COMMANDING PRESENCE
OF MANDELA.
WITH STRONG PRESSURE
FROM TAMBO, SISULU,
MANDELA,
THE AFRICAN NATIONAL
CONGRESS WAS, IN FACT,
BECOMING MUCH MORE
A LIBERATION MOVEMENT.
Joe Matthews:
NELSON ALWAYS STUCK OUT,
NO MATTER HOW HARD
HE TRIED.
I MEAN, HE JOINED
THE BOXING CLUB,
AND HE WENT OFF
WITH THE CHAPS JOGGING.
AND HE BELIEVED,
I THINK,
THAT HE WAS
JUST ONE OF THE–
THE CROWD–
HE WAS JUST LIKE
EVERYBODY ELSE–
BUT HE COULD NEVER
PULL IT OFF.
Nthatho Motlana:
MR. MANDELA
TENDED TO BE KINGLY.
YOU WERE CAREFUL WHAT
YOU SAID TO HIM EVEN THEN.
I MEAN, HE WAS
YOUNG, ATHLETIC.
HE LOVED BOXING,
BUT WHEN YOU SPOKE
TO MR. MANDELA,
YOU–YOU CHOSE YOUR WORDS
CAREFULLY.
I JOINED THE AFRICAN
NATIONAL CONGRESS
BY BECOMING A MEMBER
OF THE YOUTH LEAGUE IN 1944,
AND THAT IS THE YEAR
IN WHICH I GOT MARRIED.
Announcer: NEWS FROM
GOVERNMENT SOUTH PRETORIA,
WHERE SOUTH AFRICA’S
NEWLY ELECTED
PRIME MINISTER DR. MALAN
WAS SWORN IN
BY THE GOVERNOR
GENERAL OF THE UNION
MR. VAN ZALE
AT THE BEGINNING
OF A NEW CHAPTER
IN SOUTH AFRICA’S
HISTORY.
Mandela:
COMRADE OLIVER SAID,
“WELL, I LIKE THIS
“BECAUSE WE NOW KNOW
“WE HAVE AN ENEMY
IN POWER,
“AND I THINK THAT
WE ARE GOING TO HAVE
A BETTER OPPORTUNITY
OF MOBILIZING OUR PEOPLE.”
Man: ♪ THEY CAME
IN THE HEAT OF RUM ♪
♪ TO FREEZE THE BEAT
OF MY DRUM ♪
♪ OH, PEOPLE, TAKE NOTE ♪
♪ I WASN’T ALLOWED
TO VOTE ♪
♪ THEY SANG A SONG ♪
♪ SHARP
AS THE DEVIL’S PRONG ♪
♪ THEY SPOKE IN THE GUN
AND RIFLE TONE ♪
♪ AND I ANSWERED
IN THE LANGUAGE OF STONE ♪
OUR POLICY IS ONE…
WHICH IS CALLED
BY AN AFRIKANERS’ WORD
“APARTHEID”…
AND I’M AFRAID THAT HAS BEEN
MISUNDERSTOOD SO OFTEN.
IT COULD JUST AS EASILY,
AND PERHAPS,
MUCH BETTER BE DESCRIBED
AS A POLICY
OF GOOD NEIGHBORLINESS–
ACCEPTING THAT THERE ARE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PEOPLE.
AND WHILE THESE
DIFFERENCES EXIST,
AND YOU HAVE
TO ACKNOWLEDGE THEM,
AT THE SAME TIME,
YOU CAN LIVE TOGETHER,
AID ONE ANOTHER,
BUT THAT CAN
BEST BE DONE
WHEN YOU ACT AS
GOOD NEIGHBORS ALWAYS DO.
Narrator:
THE REALITY OF APARTHEID
WAS THAT WHITES RULED,
BLACKS SERVED.
THE EVERYDAY SYMBOL
OF APARTHEID WAS THE PASS–
THE IDENTITY DOCUMENT
THAT WAS A BLACK PERSON’S
PROOF OF EXISTENCE.
WITHOUT IT,
YOU WERE ILLEGAL.
A POLICEMAN COULD DEMAND
TO SEE YOUR PASS
ANYTIME, ANYWHERE,
AND IF YOU DIDN’T
HAVE IT,
YOU WERE THROWN
INTO JAIL.
WHOLE BLACK GHETTOS
WERE DESTROYED OR REMOVED,
SIMPLY BECAUSE THEY WERE
TOO CLOSE TO WHITE HOMES.
Mandela: IN 1952,
WE LAUNCHED
A DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN
WHERE WE SELECTED
6 UNJUST LAWS
AND, UH, DEFIED THEM,
SO THAT WE CAN
GO TO JAIL
AND BE ABLE
TO FOCUS ATTENTION
ON THESE UNJUST LAWS.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: WE HAD TO TRAIN
THE VOLUNTEERS
TO SHOW THEM
HOW THEY SHOULD RESIST
PROVOCATION
BY THE REGIME.
ALL OUR PEOPLE
HAD ACCEPTED
THAT THOSE WHO PARTICIPATED
IN THIS STRUGGLE
HAD TO BE
ABSOLUTELY DISCIPLINED
AND NONVIOLENT.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
IN ANY DIFFICULT
SITUATION,
THE FIRST ONE
TO VOLUNTEER
WOULD BE NELSON.
WHO LED THE JUNE 26 STRIKE
IN 1950?
NELSON MANDELA.
WHO PRESENTED A PLAN
FOR CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE?
NELSON MANDELA.
WHO IS THE FIRST
TO VOLUNTEER?
NELSON MANDELA.
HE AVOIDED ALL THE CLASHES
FOR POSITION
IN THE ORGANIZATION.
HE NEVER GOT INVOLVED.
I MEAN, WE ELECTED HIM
TO THE POSITION OF PRESIDENT
OF THE ANC YOUTH LEAGUE
IN HIS ABSENCE.
HE WASN’T EVEN THERE.
Narrator: IN 1953,
MANDELA AND TAMBO
BECAME PARTNERS
IN THE FIRST AFRICAN
LAW FIRM IN THE COUNTRY.
George Bizos:
THEIR OFFICE
WAS MORE LIKE…
A CROWDED DOCTOR’S
WAITING ROOM
THAN A LEGAL OFFICE
WHERE PEOPLE COME
BY APPOINTMENT.
OLIVER WAS THE BETTER
THEORETICAL LAWYER
THAN–THAN NELSON,
BUT NOBODY COULD REALLY
TOUCH NELSON
AS A–AS A TRIAL LAWYER
WHOSE PRESENCE
WAS REALLY FELT.
Godfrey Pitje:
WHEN HE WALKED INTO COURT,
EVERYBODY
TOOK NOTE OF HIM–
THE PROSECUTORS,
THE MAGISTRATES,
THE INTERPRETER,
THE POLICE CONSTABLES–
TO SAY NOTHING
OF THE PUBLIC GALLERY.
AND ALL HE NEEDED TO DO
WAS TO TURN AROUND
AND LOOK,
AND THERE’S ALMOST
A FLARE-UP
OF ENTHUSIASM AROUND HIM.
HE UPSET PROSECUTORS,
POLICEMEN AND MAGISTRATES,
UH…
FOR NOT, UH…
BEING, UH,
SUBSERVIENT,
PARTICULARLY WHEN
HE CROSS-EXAMINED WHITES.
WOMEN WOULD BE
ABSOLUTELY SHOCKED
THAT AN AFRICAN
COULD STAND UP
AND ASK THEM QUESTIONS.
Mandela: I ONCE HAD
A CASE OF RAPE
WHERE A BLACK MAN
HAD RAPED A WHITE WOMAN.
ONE OF THE ESSENTIAL…
UH, POINTS
OF THE CHARGE IN RAPE
IS THAT THERE SHOULD
HAVE BEEN PENETRATION.
SO WHEN I CROSS-EXAMINED
HER ON THIS…
FOR HER,
IN A COURT OF LAW,
IN THE PRESENCE
OF BLACK CLIENTS,
TO ADMIT THAT
THERE WAS PENETRATION
WAS SOMETHING
TOO SERIOUS,
TOO HUMILIATING,
AND SHE SAID, “NO!”
I SAID, “BUT, UH,
“UH…
“ARE YOU SAYING
THAT YOUR STATEMENT
“THAT YOU GAVE TO THE POLICE
WAS WRONG?
ARE YOU SAYING THAT
THERE WAS NO PENETRATION?”
SHE SAYS,
“THERE WAS NO PENETRATION!”
AND, OF COURSE,
THAT WAS THE ESSENCE
OF THE CASE.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Narrator: IN 1955,
THE ANC PUT OUT A CALL
TO OPPOSITION GROUPS
OF ALL RACES,
FROM ALL OVER THE COUNTRY.
THEY CAME TOGETHER
TO APPROVE THE FREEDOM CHARTER.
THE CHARTER SPELLED OUT
THE DEMANDS
FOR THE CREATION
OF A FREE, DEMOCRATIC,
AND MULTIRACIAL
SOUTH AFRICA.
Narrator:
MANDELA, ONE OF THE KEY
ORGANIZERS OF THE EVENT,
HAD BEEN PROHIBITED
BY THE POLICE
FROM ATTENDING
ANY PUBLIC GATHERINGS.
HE WATCHED SECRETLY
FROM THE SIDELINES.
HE WAS HARDLY EVER AROUND.
HE WAS ORGANIZING.
IN THOSE DAYS, YOU DIDN’T
TRAVEL BY–BY–UH…
PLANES WHEN YOU WERE
ORGANIZING THE ANC.
YOU TRAVEL BY WHATEVER
LIFT YOU COULD GET.
YOU TRAVEL BY BUS.
YOU TRAVEL BY TRAIN.
SO YOU WERE AWAY FROM HOME
ALL THAT MUCH LONGER.
EVELYN HERSELF DIDN’T THINK
THAT THE MARRIAGE
WAS ENDING,
ALTHOUGH THEY HAD SEPARATED,
AND SHE WAS LIVING
IN ONE PART OF ORLANDO,
AND HE WAS LIVING
IN ANOTHER PART OF ORLANDO.
UH, SHE WAS STILL HOPEFUL
THAT THEY WOULD
GET TOGETHER.
[TRAIN WHISTLE BLOWS]
Narrator: IN 1957,
MANDELA DIVORCED EVELYN,
LEAVING THEIR 3 CHILDREN
IN HER CUSTODY.
[WHISTLE BLOWS]
Mandela:
I REMEMBER THE FIRST TIME
MY MOTHER CAME
TO JOHANNESBURG.
2 WHITE POLICEMEN WENT HOME
WHILE I WAS AT WORK,
AND THEY COULD SPEAK
XHOSA VERY WELL.
AND THEY SAID TO HER,
“LOOK, MA’AM,
WE HAVE COME TO WARN YOU.
“ASK YOUR SON TO GO BACK
HOME TO THE TRANSKEI.
“HE IS GETTING
INTO TROUBLE,
“HE HAS ALREADY
BEEN IN JAIL,
“AND HE WILL DIE IN JAIL.
“HE, AT LEAST,
HAS GOT A PROFESSION.”
I HAD JUST TURNED–
QUALIFIED AS A LAWYER.
“HAS GOT A PROFESSION.
“HE IS MIXING UP WITH PEOPLE
WHO HAVE NO PROFESSIONS.
“MISCHIEF MAKERS, AGITATORS
WHO HAVE NOTHING TO LOSE.
“TELL YOUR SON
TO GO BACK, UH, HOME
AND ASSUME HIS POSITION.”
BY THE TIME I RETURNED
IN THE AFTERNOON,
MY MOTHER WAS WAITING
FOR ME AT THE GATE,
AND SHE SAYS, UM,
“YOU MUST GO HOME.
“YOU CAN’T BE GETTING
IN AND OUT OF PRISON.
“THAT’S A DISGRACE.
“THERE WERE
2 WHITES HERE,
“AND WHO SPOKE VERY WELL,
LIKE PARENTS,
AND THEY SAY
I MUST SEND YOU HOME.”
SO I REALIZED
THAT I MUST START AT HOME
BY PREACHING POLITICS.
Meer: WELL, HE WAS
STRIKINGLY HANDSOME,
AND IN THOSE DAYS HE DIDN’T
HAVE THIS LEAN FIGURE.
HE WAS A BIG MAN,
AND THE FIRST THING
THAT ATTRACTED YOU TO HIM
WAS HIS PHYSICAL PRESENCE,
WHICH WAS
SO VERY ATTRACTIVE.
THEN, OF COURSE,
HE HAD A SENSE OF HUMOR,
AND, UH, HE PULLED
YOUR LEGS, YOU KNOW.
I MEAN, HE CRACKED JOKES,
AND HE TEASED, YOU SEE,
SO THERE WAS THAT PART,
SO YOU FELL INTO A VERY EASY
RELATIONSHIP WITH HIM.
Motlana: I CAN REMEMBER
AS IF IT WAS YESTERDAY.
THIS TALL, ELEGANT,
VERY WELL DRESSED YOUNG MAN
WHO ENTERTAINED LAVISHLY,
DIDN’T DRINK,
BUT WOULD HAVE A CUPBOARD
FULL OF LIQUOR
AT A TIME WHEN A BLACK
REQUIRED A PERMIT
TO BUY WHITE MAN’S LIQUOR,
AND HE WAS ENTERTAINING
HIS FRIENDS,
PLYING THEM WITH ALCOHOL,
WHILE HE NEVER TOUCHED
THE DARN STUFF.
[MEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Winnie Mandela: I GOT
THIS PHONE CALL.
THIS MAN SAID, UH,
A VERY STERN VOICE,
SAID, “IS THAT
MISS MIDIKIZELA?”
AND I SAID, “YES, SIR.”
AND THEN HE SAID, UM…
“YOU MAY NOT RECALL
SEEING ME,
“BUT I AM THE PERSON
WHO USUALLY PICKS UP DR. NGI
AT THAT BUS STOP
WHERE YOU WAIT FOR YOUR BUS.”
THEN HE TOLD ME HIS NAME.
HE WANTED TO SEE ME.
I TRIED TO AVOID
THE MEETING,
AND HE–HE’S, OF COURSE,
VERY PERSISTENT,
AND HE HAS THE TYPE OF VOICE
YOU CAN’T SAY NO TO.
WHEN–WHEN HE ASKS YOU
FOR A FAVOR,
HE IS IN FACT
GIVING YOU A COMMAND,
IN A VERY POLITE WAY,
SO HE WAS GIVING ME
THIS COMMAND TO MEET HIM,
AND A TREMBLING
LITTLE GIRL,
OF COURSE, I SAID,
“YES, SIR.”
[WOMEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
MY FATHER WAS TOTALLY
OPPOSED TO THE WEDDING.
HE WAS WORRIED
ABOUT MY AGE.
HE WAS WORRIED
ABOUT THE FACT
THAT MANDELA WAS
SO INVOLVED POLITICALLY.
THE FAMILY ELDERS FELT
THAT HE WAS MARRYING ME
JUST AS A MAID
TO LOOK AFTER HIS CHILDREN
BECAUSE HE WOULD SPEND
THE REST OF HIS LIFE IN PRISON,
AND HE HAD CHILDREN
BY HIS FIRST MARRIAGE.
SO THEY THOUGHT
THAT HE JUST WANTED SOMEONE
TO LOOK AFTER
THOSE CHILDREN,
WHICH, OF COURSE,
I TOTALLY DISAGREED WITH.
WE WERE MADLY IN LOVE.
[MEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Sampson: THE TREASON TRIAL
I’LL ALWAYS REMEMBER
AS HAVING SOMETHING
HORRIFIC ABOUT IT.
IT WAS VERY KAFKA-ESQUE
AND ALARMING.
I WAS AMAZED BY THE COURAGE
OF ALL THE ACCUSED,
WHETHER IT WAS TAMBO,
MANDELA, OR SISULU,
BECAUSE THEY WERE
SO OBVIOUSLY BEING TRAPPED
AND CAUGHT INTO THIS
NIGHTMARISH PROCEDURE,
WHICH WAS DESIGNED,
OF COURSE,
SPECIFICALLY TO KEEP THEM
OUT OF POLITICS,
TO KEEP THEM TIED UP.
[PROTESTERS CHANTING]
Mandela:
IN JOHANNESBURG ITSELF,
WHERE THE PREPARATORY
EXAMINATION TOOK PLACE,
IT ACTUALLY AROUSED
THE ENTHUSIASM OF OUR PEOPLE.
THE SOLIDARITY,
WHICH WAS INCREASING
ALMOST EVERY DAY,
YOU COULD SEE IT,
AND THERE I REMEMBER
NOTICING SOMEHOW
THE TALL SHAPE OF MANDELA
ALWAYS SO OFTEN
SEEMED TO BE A SORT
OF FOCUS FOR THE OTHERS.
THE COMMAND AND AUTHORITY
AND RESPECT.
YOU COULD SEE THIS LEADERSHIP
SORT OF CHANGING SHAPE.
Narrator: MANDELA HAD BECOME
A CENTRAL FIGURE IN THE TRIAL.
HIS LAW PRACTICE
AND HIS FAMILY LIFE SUFFERED.
HE SPENT LESS AND LESS
TIME AT HOME
WITH WINNIE
AND THEIR 2 DAUGHTERS,
WHO WERE BORN
DURING THIS PERIOD.
Winnie: HE WOULD LEAVE ME
AT HOME EVERY MORNING
AND GO TO THE TREASON TRIAL.
IF HE CAME BACK HOME
ONCE A WEEK, WE WERE LUCKY.
WE WERE LUCKY
TO SEE HIM AT ALL,
AND WHEN HE DID COME HOME,
HE WOULD BE GOING
TO THESE MEETINGS,
AND WE WERE LUCKY
IF HE CAME HOME
AT 4:00 IN THE MORNING
TO BE UP ON THE ROAD AGAIN
TO THE TREASON TRIAL
IN PRETORIA.
Sampson: DAY AFTER DAY,
THE SAME PEOPLE
HAD TO COME IN,
ENDURE THIS DAY,
AND THEN IT WAS
A SUCCESSION OF DETAIL
AND MINOR ACCUSATIONS,
WHICH THEN WENT THROUGH
THIS CROSS-EXAMINATION,
REVEALING THE POLICE
HAD ALL BEEN LYING.
Narrator: THE GOVERNMENT’S
CASE COLLAPSED,
AND ALL OF THE ACCUSED
WERE FOUND NOT GUILTY.
FOR 4 1/2 YEARS,
OPPOSITION LEADERS HAD BEEN
TIED UP BY THE TRIAL,
BUT IN THE STREETS,
IN THE BLACK GHETTOS,
RESISTANCE HAD CONTINUED.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[GUNSHOTS]
Mandela: IT WAS FELT
THAT SOMEBODY SHOULD
GO UNDERGROUND
AND LEAD THE MOVEMENT.
I ACCEPTED THE CHALLENGE,
WITH ALL ITS DIFFICULTIES.
Wolfie Kodesh:
THE WHOLE COUNTRY, POLICE, ARMY,
EVERYONE HAD A PHOTOGRAPH
OF NELSON MANDELA,
WHO HAD TO BE ARRESTED
IMMEDIATELY, HE WAS SEEN.
WE COULDN’T REALLY
DISGUISE HIS FACE.
I MEAN, HE’D WEAR A CAP
OR SOMETHING FROM TIME TO TIME,
BUT IT WAS NEVER
SATISFACTORY.
WE HAD TO TAKE
GREAT PRECAUTIONS.
WE HAD TO BLINDFOLD
JOURNALISTS.
WE HAD TO CHANGE CARS,
SOMETIMES 2 OR 3 CARS.
Reporter:
DO YOU SEE AFRICANS
BEING ABLE TO DEVELOP
IN THIS COUNTRY
WITHOUT THE EUROPEAN
BEING PUSHED OUT?
SOUTH AFRICA IS A COUNTRY
OF MANY RACES.
THERE IS ROOM FOR ALL
THE VARIOUS RACES
IN THIS COUNTRY.
THE AFRICANS WANT
ONE MAN, ONE VOTE.
THEY WANT
POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE.
NOW, IF DR. VERWOERD’S
GOVERNMENT
DOESN’T GIVE YOU
THE KIND OF CONCESSIONS
THAT YOU WANT
SOME TIME SOON,
IS THERE ANY LIKELIHOOD
OF VIOLENCE?
IT IS USELESS AND FUTILE
FOR US TO CONTINUE TALKING
PEACE AND NONVIOLENCE
AGAINST A GOVERNMENT
WHOSE REPLY IS ONLY
SAVAGE ATTACKS
ON AN UNARMED
AND DEFENSELESS PEOPLE.
IN THAT SITUATION,
WE HAD NO ALTERNATIVE
BUT TO RESORT
TO ARMED STRUGGLE,
BUT WE MADE IT CLEAR
EVEN AS WE TOOK THAT DECISION
THAT THE RESPONSIBILITY
RESTED SQUARELY
ON THE SHOULDERS
OF THE GOVERNMENT,
AND THAT WE COULD REFRAIN
FROM THIS ACTION,
EVEN AT THIS
ELEVENTH HOUR,
IF THE GOVERNMENT
AGREED TO MEET
AND TO SIT DOWN WITH US.
BUT THE GOVERNMENT BELIEVED
IN STRONG-ARM METHODS,
AND ALL THAT THEY DID
WAS TO SAY, “GLOVES OFF.
“THERE IS NOW GOING TO BE
A REAL CONFLICT.
WE ARE GOING TO
SUPPRESS YOU,”
AND THAT’S WHAT
THEY TRIED TO DO.
Narrator:
MANDELA LEFT THE COUNTRY
ON A MISSION TO RAISE FUNDS
AND GET MILITARY TRAINING
FOR THE ARMED STRUGGLE.
UPON HIS RETURN
TO SOUTH AFRICA,
HE WAS CAUGHT
AND ARRESTED.
I MUST JUST TELL YOU
ABOUT HIS DRAMATIC
APPEARANCE IN COURT.
MY WORD. I WAS SITTING
IN THE COURT BECAUSE
I WAS REPORTING IT.
SPECIAL BRANCH
ARMED POLICEMEN,
OUTSIDE THE COURT,
INSIDE THE COURT,
THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE.
THEN WINNIE CAME
WITH A SUITCASE.
AND SHE SAID
TO THE POLICEMEN
BEFORE COURT
HAD STARTED,
“TAKE THIS DOWN.
IT’S A CHANGE OF CLOTHING
FOR MR. MANDELA.”
THIS MAN WALKED UP,
AND AS I SAY,
HE WAS A MIGHTY MAN, EH?
HE HAD BEADS
AROUND HIS NECK.
HE HAD A SORT OF
CROSS AVILLA.
HE HAD THINGS AROUND HIS–
NATIONAL DRESS.
EVERYONE WAS JUST SHOCKED
AT SEEING THIS MAN
IN THIS DRAMATIC ATTIRE,
AND HE LOOKED STRAIGHT
AT THAT MAGISTRATE.
THE MAGISTRATE
WAS TRANSFIXED
BY THIS JUST STARING
OF MANDELA,
LIKE A MONGOOSE
WITH A SNAKE.
Narrator: MANDELA
WAS SENTENCED TO 5 YEARS
FOR LEAVING THE COUNTRY
ILLEGALLY AND INCITING STRIKES.
WHILE HE WAS IN PRISON,
HIS COMRADES IN THE ARMED
STRUGGLE WERE ARRESTED.
THEY WERE FOUND WITH GUNS,
BOMBS AND DOCUMENTS
THAT INCRIMINATED MANDELA.
LESS THAN A YEAR
INTO HIS SENTENCE,
HE WAS BACK IN COURT,
THIS TIME FACING
THE DEATH PENALTY
FOR HIGH TREASON.
[WOMEN SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Crowd: MANDELA!
MANDELA!
MANDELA!
YOU KNOW, WE WERE EVEN WARNED
BY THE LAWYERS IN THIS CASE
THAT, “DON’T BE HOPEFUL.
THIS IS A BAD CASE FOR US.”
THE THINGS THAT WERE
ON THAT TABLE,
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ARMS.
THE LAWYERS WERE SO SCARED.
THEY SAID, “LOOK, THESE PEOPLE
ARE CAUGHT RED-HANDED.”
MY WIFE CAME
BEFORE THE SENTENCE…
AND JUST SAID, “WELL, LOOK,
YOU HAVE TO BE STRONG.”
THAT WAS A REFLECTION OF HOW
THEY WERE THINKING OUTSIDE.
WE WERE PREPARED
FOR ANYTHING,
AND BECAUSE THE LAWYERS
WERE NOW SHAKY,
WE SAID, “OH,
THEY ARE GOING TO HANG,
BUT WE WILL BE THERE
WITH THEM.”
WE WERE CONCERNED…
THAT IN SEEKING TO DEFEND
OURSELVES IN COURT…
WE SHOULDN’T SAY ANYTHING
THAT WOULD DISTORT
THE HISTORY OF THE STRUGGLE.
THE VERY SPEECH
WHICH WAS MADE BY NELSON
CONSOLIDATED THE SPIRIT
OF THE PEOPLE OUTSIDE,
BECAUSE IT WAS
A DEFIANT SPIRIT.
HE SAID THAT, UH…
DEMOCRACY AND NON-RACIALISM
WERE THINGS
THAT HE HAD FOUGHT FOR
ALL OF HIS LIFE,
AND IN THE FIRST DRAFT,
HE HAD SAID, UH,
THAT HE WAS PREPARED
TO DIE FOR IT.
IN DISCUSSIONS
WE PERSUADED HIM, UH…
TO ADD 3 WORDS
SO THAT IT MAY NOT
BE AS CHALLENGING
AS THE FIRST DRAFT.
THE WORDS WERE,
“IF NEEDS BE,
I AM PREPARED
TO DIE FOR IT.”
IT’S THE ONE AMENDMENT
THAT HE DID ACCEPT,
BUT WHEN HE UTTERED
THOSE WORDS,
THERE WAS A–A GASP,
AND THEN ABSOLUTE SILENCE.
YOU KNOW,
IT BECAME DARK IN COURT.
YOU KNOW, WE DIDN’T EVEN
KNOW THAT THE CLOUDS
ARE GATHERING.
IT BECAME DARK,
AND THE RAIN JUST FELL,
AND IT WAS ALL QUIET.
AFTER THAT,
SOME OF US SAYS,
“MMM, THOSE ARE THE LAST
WORDS HE IS GIVING US.”
Mandela on P.A.: I HAVE FOUGHT
AGAINST WHITE DOMINATION,
AND I HAVE FOUGHT AGAINST
BLACK DOMINATION.
I HAVE CHALLENGED THE IDEAL
OF A DEMOCRATIC
AND FREE SOCIETY,
IN WHICH ALL PERSONS
LIVE TOGETHER IN HARMONY
AND WITH EQUAL OPPORTUNITY.
IT IS AN IDEAL WHICH
I HOPE TO LIVE FOR
AND TO ACHIEVE.
BUT IF NEEDS BE,
IT IS AN IDEAL
FOR WHICH
I AM PREPARED TO DIE.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Narrator: MANDELA
AND HIS COMRADES
WERE SENTENCED TO LIFE
ON ROBBEN ISLAND,
THE NOTORIOUS PRISON
OFF THE COAST OF CAPE TOWN.
I BELIEVE THE WAY IN WHICH
YOU WILL BE TREATED
BY THE PRISON AUTHORITIES
DEPENDS UPON YOUR DEMEANOR,
AND YOU MUST FIGHT
THAT BATTLE AND WIN IT
ON THE VERY FIRST DAY.
2 CHAPS CAME
THROUGH THE PASSAGE,
AND THEY’RE
VERY AGGRESSIVE,
AND THEY SELECTED MOLETE,
WHO WAS A GENTLEMAN,
YOU KNOW,
VERY SOFT, UH,
VERY COURTEOUS CHAP,
AND THIS CAPTAIN SAYS,
“WHY IS YOUR HAIR SO LONG?
DON’T YOU KNOW
THE REGULATIONS?”
AND, UH, MOLETE, YOU KNOW,
KIND OF COULDN’T HANDLE
SUCH AN AGGRESSIVE APPROACH,
AND HE SAYS, “YOUR HAIR
IS LONG, LIKE THIS BOY’S,”
AND POINTING AT ME.
AND I SAY, “LOOK HERE.”
I COULDN’T FINISH
THAT SENTENCE.
WHEN HE DASHED–
CHARGED, UH, ON ME,
AGAINST ME,
AND I SAID TO HIM,
“YOU DARE TOUCH ME,
I WILL TAKE YOU
TO THE HIGHEST COURT
IN THE LAND…”
“AND BY THE TIME
I FINISH WITH YOU,
YOU WILL BE AS POOR
AS A CHURCH MOUSE.”
THAT STOPPED HIM
ON HIS TRACKS.
Ahmed Kathrada: THEY HAD
INDOCTRINATED THESE CHAPS
VERY, VERY THOROUGHLY.
EVERYONE WAS
FRIGHTENED OF US.
YOU KNOW, THEY HAD PAINTED
A PICTURE OF WILD, UNRULY,
UNDISCIPLINED,
VIOLENT TERRORISTS,
SO THAT FOR THE FIRST MONTH
WHILE WE WERE IN OUR CELLS,
LOCKED UP–NOW,
OUR CELLS HAD WINDOWS,
UH, LEADING INTO
THE PASSAGE,
THEY BROUGHT WARDERS
FROM MANY PRISONS
THROUGHOUT SOUTH AFRICA,
AND THEY’D WALK
DOWN THE PASSAGE,
STAND AT THE CELLS,
AND STARE AT US
LIKE ANIMALS IN THE ZOO.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela:
SOME WARDERS QUESTIONED,
“MUST WE BE SO CRUEL
TO PEOPLE WHOSE ONLY CRIME
IS TO WANT JUSTICE,
EQUALITY?”
AND OTHERS SAY, “NO,
WE SHOULD TREAT THEM HARSHLY,
“SO THAT WHEN THEY GO OUT,
THEY WILL KNOW THAT
THE WHITE MAN IS THE BOSS,”
AND THE OTHERS SAY, “NO.
“THE LESSON OF HISTORY
IS THAT THESE PEOPLE
EVENTUALLY WIN,
“AND IF WE TREAT
THEM LIKE THIS,
THAT IS HOW THEY WILL
TREAT US WHEN THEY COME
INTO POWER.”
Kathrada: THEIR TASK
WAS TO BREAK OUR MORALE.
VISITS AND LETTERS,
ONCE IN 6 MONTHS.
ONE LETTER, ONE VISIT.
Narrator:
“MY DARLING WINNIE,
“YOUR VISIT LAST MONTH
WAS QUITE UNEXPECTED,
“AND THAT MIGHT BE ONE REASON
I ENJOYED IT SO MUCH.
“THE MERE SIGHT OF YOU
KINDLES A THOUSAND FIRES IN ME.
“YOUR BEAUTIFUL PHOTO
STILL STANDS ABOVE
MY LEFT SHOULDER
“AS I WRITE THIS NOTE.
“I DUST IT CAREFULLY
EVERY MORNING,
“FOR TO DO SO GIVES ME
THE PLEASANT FEELING
“THAT I AM CARESSING YOU
AS IN THE OLD DAYS.
“I EVEN TOUCH
YOUR NOSE WITH MINE
“TO RECAPTURE THE ELECTRIC
CURRENT THAT USED TO FLASH
THROUGH MY BLOOD
WHENEVER I DID SO.”
Kathrada: IN JANUARY
OF ’65 THEY TOOK US OUT
TO THE LIME QUARRY.
NOW, WE WERE ADDRESSED
BY THE COMMISSIONER
OF PRISONS, GENERAL STEYN.
HE CALLED US ALL
TOGETHER AND SAID,
“LOOK, THIS WORK WILL LAST
FOR ABOUT 6 MONTHS,
AND THEN WE ARE GOING TO
GIVE YOU SOFT LABOR.”
THAT LIME QUARRY WORK,
I THINK, LASTED
FOR ABOUT 13 YEARS.
Mandela: THE WORK ITSELF,
WHICH WAS VERY DIFFICULT,
OF COURSE, KEPT YOU FIT.
YOU WOULD STAND
ON TOP THERE
AND START DIGGING, AND
THEN IT GRADUALLY COMES DOWN.
AND THAT IS WHY
YOU SEE THESE LINES.
AS YOU BREAK THAT PLATFORM,
UH, THEN THE LEVEL
GRADUALLY COMES DOWN,
UNTIL YOU COME
RIGHT DOWN TO HERE.
WHEN THEY TOOK US TO THE QUARRY
TO GO AND DIG LIME,
BY THE END OF THE DAY,
OUR HANDS WERE BLEEDING.
WE HAD NOT, OF COURSE,
BEEN ACCUSTOMED TO WORK
WITH PICK AND SHOVEL.
WE HAD NO TOILET
FACILITIES.
WE WENT INTO THAT, UH, TUNNEL
FOR TOILET FACILITIES,
AND YOU DUG A HOLE,
AND YOU CLOSED IT.
AND SOMETIMES
YOU DUG A HOLE,
AND YOU FOUND THAT SOMEBODY
HAD SET THERE, YOU SEE?
IT WAS A MESSY AFFAIR.
WHEN YOU ARE
AT THE QUARRY FACE,
THE WARDERS WOULD COUNT US
EVERY HALF AN HOUR.
EVERY 3/4 OF AN HOUR,
THEY’D COUNT,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6.
IF THERE ARE NOT 30 PRISONERS,
OUT COME THE DOGS.
THEY WOULD DECIDE
BEFORE WE LEAVE THE PRISON.
THEY SAY, “NOW, TODAY,
WE WANT TO PUNISH SO AND SO.
“WE WANT TO PUNISH
NEVILLE ALEXANDER AND MBEKI,”
AND IT DID NOT MATTER–
DID NOT MATTER HOW HARD
THEY WORKED THAT DAY.
AT THE END OF THE DAY,
THE WARDER WOULD SAY,
“MBEKI, NEVILLE ALEXANDER,
“I WANT YOU TO APPEAR BEFORE
THE HEAD OF THE PRISON
FOR REFUSING TO WORK,”
AND, UH, PEOPLE
WOULD BECOME PUNISHED.
♪ OH, PRAY ♪
♪ THE ONE WHO DIED WHILE
MAINTAINING HIS MIND ♪
♪ HIS WILL TO WIN
SO STRONG ♪
♪ AND MUSICALLY GOOD MIND ♪
♪ HEAR THE SAD MELODIES ♪
♪ COMING OUT LIKE A SMOKE
FROM THE WOODY FIRE ♪
♪ AND HE SING,
MY BU AY AFRICA ♪
♪ SING NOW, AFRICA ♪
♪ SING LOUD, SING TRUE ♪
♪ THE PEOPLE ♪
Mbeki: HE STOOD
HIS GROUND FIRMLY
TO EXPOSE
THE JAIL CONDITIONS
TO VISITING PEOPLE
LIKE JUDGES, MAGISTRATES,
OR VISITORS FROM WHEREVER.
WE GOT INTO PRISON IN ’72,
AND WHAT WE DID DURING
THAT PERIOD, WITHIN A YEAR,
APPEARED TOO RADICAL
FOR MOST OF THE PRISONERS
ON ROBBEN ISLAND.
WE STILL HAD ILLUSIONS
ABOUT COMING OUT
AFTER 2 YEARS,
BEING LIBERATED BY
THE VICTORIOUS
REVOLUTION
AND ALL THE REST OF IT,
AND THEREFORE REALLY
GIVING THEM HELL INSIDE
WHILE OUR COMRADES
OUTSIDE WERE DOING
THEIR THING.
THROUGH PRISON GRAPEVINE,
WE KNEW THAT NELSON IS MAKING
THE REPRESENTATIONS.
HE’S THE PERSON THAT NEGOTIATES
WITH THE PRISON AUTHORITIES
AND ALL THAT.
WE SAID, “WOW,
NELSON IS DOING ALL THIS.
HOW COME
WE’RE IN SUCH SHIT?”
WE HAD TO BE
PUT STRAIGHT
BY THE MANDELAS,
UH, WHO WERE OLDER
PEOPLE, FIRST OF ALL,
SECOND, THEY HAD BEEN
IN PRISON BEFORE.
AND GONE THROUGH HELL
IN THE FIFTIES ALREADY
WITH THE DEFIANCE
CAMPAIGN AND ALL THAT,
AND KNEW WHAT
PRISON REALLY MEANS
IN SOUTH AFRICA.
AND WE DIDN’T KNOW.
I MEAN, NONE OF US
HAD EVER BEEN
IN A PRISON.
Venkatrathnam: WE USED TO
PLAY CHESS ON ROBBEN ISLAND,
AND NELSON WASN’T ONE
OF THE GREATER PLAYERS.
HE WOULD TAKE DAYS–
I’M NOT EXAGGERATING–
3 DAYS, 4 DAYS
TO FINISH A SINGLE GAME.
BUT THAT’S PART
OF THE MAN’S MAKEUP.
Venkatrathnam: SOMETIMES
HE’D BECOME VERY INSCRUTABLE.
HE’S SLOW AND VERY SMART,
VERY ADEPT.
HE CAN LISTEN TO YOU,
WORK OUT IN HIS OWN MIND,
AND DO THINGS.
Mbeki: WE ENCOURAGED
ALL OUR CHAPS TO STUDY,
AND WE ALSO ACTED
AS TEACHERS THAT WAY.
WE HAD NO BLACKBOARDS,
WE HAD NO PAPER.
WE USED THE SAND.
SOMEBODY WOULD HAVE
PREPARED A LESSON,
UH, THE NIGHT BEFORE,
AND AS WE WORKED,
HE WOULD THEN, UH,
LECTURE TO THE OTHERS
ON WHAT HE READ,
AND THEY WOULD DISCUSS
THE LECTURE.
FOR DAYS ON END,
DEBATES WOULD GO ON.
AND THAT’S TRUE, YOU KNOW,
SOMETIMES THEY SAY
THAT DEBATES GO ON
FOR 30 DAYS, 40 DAYS.
TIME WAS NOT A PROBLEM
IN THAT SENSE,
BUT YET, ON THE OTHER HAND,
WE WOULD NOT WASTE
3 MINUTES DOING NOTHING.
IF YOU WANTED TO TALK
TO ME ABOUT SOMETHING,
I’D SAY, “OK,
LET’S MAKE A TIME.”
WE COULDN’T SAY
10:00, 11:00,
BEFORE LUNCH OR AFTER LUNCH
OR AFTER BREAKFAST.
THE POINT IS THAT
ALL OF US OPERATED,
AND THIS WAS TRUE,
AS IF TIME WAS RUNNING OUT.
MY MOTHER HAD STRUGGLED…
AND I WAS ABLE TO SUPPORT
HER FOR SOME TIME
WHEN I WAS ALLOWED
TO PRACTICE AS A LAWYER.
WHEN I WAS ARRESTED,
SHE STRUGGLED AGAIN.
AND SHE CAME
TO SEE ME SEVERAL TIMES,
AND, UH, THE LAST TIME
SHE CAME TO SEE ME,
I COULD SEE THAT, UH…
UH, SHE WAS GOING.
IN FACT, YOU KNOW, AS SHE
WAS LEAVING FOR THE DOOR,
I TURNED AROUND,
AND I LOOKED AT HER,
AND THE WAY
SHE WAS WALKING,
I FELT THAT THAT WAS
THE LAST TIME I’D SEE HER,
AND HER DEATH WAS ONE OF
THE SADDEST MOMENTS I HAD.
Daniels: NELSON IS A PERSON
WHO DOESN’T SHARE HIS GRIEF.
HE LIKES TO KEEP
HIS GRIEF TO HIMSELF,
LIKE PULLING HIS BLANKET
TIGHT OVER HIS BODY,
UH, JUST–JUST
LIKE THIS, YOU KNOW.
[CELL DOOR SLAMS]
Mandela:
THEY WERE HARASSING MY WIFE,
AND WE WERE NOT
GETTING ANY NEWSPAPERS.
WHENEVER
MY WIFE WAS ARRESTED,
THEN THEY’D CUT OUT…
AND MADE A CUTTING AND
JUST LEFT IT ON MY TABLE
AS I WAS AWAY AT WORK.
AND I COME BACK,
AND I SEE MY WIFE
HAD BEEN ARRESTED.
Narrator:
“MY DARLING WINNIE…
“OUR DAUGHTERS,
RAISED IN HARDSHIP,
ARE GROWN WOMEN TODAY.
THE FIRST-BORN
HAS HER OWN HOUSE AND
IS RAISING A FAMILY.”
“I’D HOPED
TO BUILD YOU A REFUGE,
“NO MATTER HOW SMALL,
“SO THAT
WE WOULD HAVE A PLACE
FOR REST AND SUSTENANCE
“BEFORE THE ARRIVAL
OF THE SAD, DRY DAYS.
“I FELL DOWN AND COULDN’T
DO THESE THINGS.
I AM AS ONE BUILDING
CASTLES IN THE AIR.”
Mandela: ONE OF THE DREAMS
I CONSTANTLY HAD IN PRISON
WAS ME GOING HOME
AND GETTING OUT IN
THE MIDDLE OF THE CITY
AND HAVING TO WALK
FROM TOWN TO SOWETO
AND REACHING HOME, FINDING
THAT THE HOUSE WAS OPEN,
THAT THERE
WAS NOBODY AT HOME,
AND BEING CONCERNED
AS TO WHAT HAS HAPPENED
TO WINNIE AND THE CHILDREN.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Winnie: ONE MORNING,
THERE WAS THE USUAL BANG
ON ALL THE DOORS,
AND I THOUGHT I WAS
BEING ARRESTED AS USUAL.
I WAS TOLD TO FOLLOW THEM
TO THE TRUCKS,
AND THEN WE WERE DRIVEN
TO THE FREE STATE.
WE WERE TAKEN TO THIS HOUSE
IN BRANDFORT.
THERE WASN’T EVEN A FLOOR,
AND THERE
I WAS EXPECTED TO LIVE.
SHE LIVED IN A SMALL,
MISERABLE 4-ROOM HOUSE
IN AN AREA WHERE
EVERYBODY SPOKE SESOTHO.
NO ONE UNDERSTOOD XHOSA.
I SUPPOSE THIS IS WHY
SHE WAS BANISHED TO THIS AREA,
BUT SHE WAS BEGINNING
TO GROW A VEGETABLE GARDEN,
SHE HAD STARTED
WOMEN’S SELF-HELP GROUPS,
BEGINNING TO REALLY
INTERACT AND WORK
WITH THE LOCAL COMMUNITY.
Winnie: IN BRANDFORT,
I WOULD EITHER HAVE BEEN
TOTALLY BROKEN OR SURVIVED,
AND I DECIDED TO SURVIVE.
[CHANTING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
I BRING YOU
MESSAGES OF LOVE
FROM OUR LEADERS
INSIDE PRISONS
WHO SHARE WITH YOU
THE PAIN OF OUR COUNTRY.
THE SOLUTION
TO THIS COUNTRY’S PROBLEMS
LIES IN THIS BLACK HAND.
THAT DAY IS NOT FAR
WHEN IT SHALL
LEAD YOU TO FREEDOM.
AMANDLA!
Crowd: AMANDLA!
AMANDLA!
[CHANTING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[GUNSHOTS]
Male Journalist: WILL THERE
EVER BE ONE MAN, ONE VOTE
IN SOUTH AFRICA?
NO.
ISN’T THAT WHY
YOU ARE ALMOST
CERTAIN TO BE FACED
WITH A BLOODY WAR?
NO, BUT THERE’S
NOT ONE MAN, ONE VOTE
ANYWHERE IN AFRICA.
THERE’S 20 MILLION
BLACK PEOPLE
IN YOUR COUNTRY
WHO WISH
TO HAVE THE VOTE.
YOUR PROBLEM IS,
IT IS NO USE ASKING–
YOU KEEP ON ARGUING
ABOUT 20 MILLION BLACKS.
Male Journalist:
WILL THERE BE
ONE MAN, ONE VOTE?
CERTAINLY.
THAT IS INEVITABLE.
THERE WILL BE
ONE MAN, ONE VOTE
IN THIS COUNTRY,
AND THERE WILL BE
A MAJORITY GOVERNMENT
IN THIS COUNTRY.
THAT MAJORITY
GOVERNMENT WILL
ACCOMMODATE EVERYBODY.
LED BY?
MANDELA.
♪ FREE ♪
♪ NELSON MANDELA ♪
♪ FREE ♪
♪ FREE ♪
♪ FREE, FREE, FREE ♪
♪ NELSON MANDELA ♪
Crowd: AMANDLA!
♪ FREE ♪
♪ NELSON MANDELA ♪
♪ 21 YEARS AGO TO THE “T” ♪
♪ HIS SHOES TOO SMALL
TO FIT HIS FEET ♪
♪ HIS BODY ABUSED,
BUT HIS MIND IS STILL FREE ♪
♪ ARE YOU SO BLIND
THAT YOU CANNOT SEE? ♪
♪ I SAY… ♪
♪ FREE ♪
♪ NELSON MANDELA ♪
♪ I’M BEGGING YOU ♪
♪ FREE ♪
♪ NELSON MANDELA ♪
Winnie: HE IS
PRISONER NUMBER 220-82,
AND HE WRITES,
“MY DARLING MA’AM…
“I OFTEN WONDER
JUST HOW FAR MORE DIFFICULT
“IT WOULD HAVE BEEN FOR ME
“TO TAKE THE DECISION
TO LEAVE YOU BEHIND
“IF I HAD BEEN ABLE
TO SEE CLEARLY
“THE COUNTLESS PERILS
AND HARDSHIPS
“TO WHICH YOU WOULD BE
EXPOSED IN MY ABSENCE.
“YOUR LOVE AND SUPPORT,
THE RAW WARMTH OF YOUR BODY,
“IS WHAT LIFE AND HAPPINESS
MEANS TO ME.
I LOVE YOU.
DEVOTEDLY, MADIBA.”
Narrator:
AFTER 7 YEARS OF BANISHMENT,
WINNIE DEFIED THE GOVERNMENT
AND TRIED
TO RETURN HOME TO SOWETO.
Winnie: STOP THAT!
Woman: COME ALONG.
I SUGGEST YOU
COME ALONG.
HEY, DON’T DRAG ME!
I WARN YOU,
DON’T TOUCH ME!
I KNOW WHAT
ARREST MEANS!
WHAT DO YOU
THINK YOU’RE DOING?
WE’RE PLACING YOU
UNDER ARREST.
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?
COME ON. COME ON.
DON’T PUSH ME.
[HONKING]
[CHANTING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Fatima Meer: WINNIE
CAME OUT OF HER BANISHMENT,
AND SHE TOOK OVER
THESE YOUNG PEOPLE
AS IF THEY WERE
HER OWN CHILDREN,
AND THERE
IN HER ORLANDO HOME,
THERE WERE SOME ROOMS
AT THE BACK,
AND THEY WERE LIVING THERE.
AND…THEY WERE
AN OBNOXIOUS LOT.
THERE’S NO DOUBT ABOUT IT,
BUT AS FAR AS WINNIE
IS CONCERNED,
THEY WERE HER CHILDREN,
AND THEY COULD DO NO WRONG.
Winnie: I AM BACK WITH YOU
WHERE I BELONG.
THIS IS NOW THE RIGHT TIME
TO TAKE YOUR COUNTRY!
WE HAVE NO–NO ARMS.
WE HAVE STONES.
WE HAVE BOXES OF MATCHES.
WE HAVE BOTTLES.
AMANDLA!
AMANDLA!
[CHANTING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Male Journalist: DO YOU
FORESEE ANY CIRCUMSTANCES
UNDER WHICH YOU WOULD
TALK WITH AND RELEASE
NELSON MANDELA?
I’M ONLY PREPARED TO TALK
TO PEOPLE WHO WANT
CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE,
BUT NOT–I’M NOT PREPARED
TO TALK TO PEOPLE WHO WANT
REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE.
[SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Narrator: BOTHA
OFFERED TO RELEASE MANDELA
IF HE RENOUNCED THE ANC
AND THE ARMED STRUGGLE.
MY FATHER SAYS…
“I HAVE ALWAYS BEEN A MEMBER OF
THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS,
“AND I WILL REMAIN A MEMBER OF
THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
“UNTIL THE DAY I DIE.
“I CANNOT AND WILL NOT
GIVE ANY UNDERTAKING
“AT A TIME WHEN I AND YOU,
THE PEOPLE, ARE NOT FREE.
YOUR FREEDOM AND MINE
CANNOT BE SEPARATED.”
Desmond Tutu:
WE NEED NELSON MANDELA!
THAT IS OUR LEADER!
THAT IS OUR LEADER!
RELEASE OUR LEADER!
I’VE BEEN LENIENT…
AND PATIENT.
DON’T PUSH US TOO FAR.
[APPLAUSE]
DON’T PUSH US TOO FAR.
[CHANTING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Male Journalist: WHEN
DO YOU THINK HIS RELEASE
MIGHT BE POSSIBLE?
Winnie: UNFORTUNATELY,
THE OBSTACLES STILL EXIST.
AS I HAVE POINTED OUT,
THE ONUS IS ON MR. DeKLERK.
AS FAR AS THE FAMILY
IS CONCERNED,
WE ARE BACK TO WHERE
WE HAVE TO PRESSURE FOR
HIS RELEASE ONCE MORE.
DeKlerk: THE PROHIBITION OF
THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS,
THE PAN-AFRICANISTS
CONGRESS,
THE SOUTH AFRICAN
COMMUNIST PARTY,
AND A NUMBER OF
SUBSIDIARY ORGANIZATIONS
IS BEING RESCINDED.
I WISH TO PUT IT PLAINLY
THAT THE GOVERNMENT
HAS TAKEN A FIRM DECISION
TO RELEASE MR. MANDELA
UNCONDITIONALLY.
♪ OH, MANDELA ♪
♪ SON OF AFRICA ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR FREEDOM ♪
♪ SPIRIT OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ OH, MADIBA ♪
♪ WE HOLD YOU
IN OUR HEARTS ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR NATION ♪
♪ WE SING OUR PRAISE
IN LIGHT OF YOU ♪
♪ MANDELA ♪
♪ MADIBA ♪
♪ ALL HIS LIFE,
BORN TO LEAD ♪
♪ YOU SHAPED OUR DESTINY ♪
♪ FOR MANY, MANY YEARS ♪
♪ WE WAITED FOR YOU ♪
♪ YOUR HONESTY FOR LIFE ♪
♪ TAUGHT EQUALITY ♪
♪ YEAH ♪
♪ OH, MANDELA ♪
♪ SON OF AFRICA ♪
♪ SON OF AFRICA ♪
♪ FATHER
OF OUR FREEDOM ♪
♪ SPIRIT OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ OH, MADIBA ♪
♪ WE HOLD YOU
IN OUR HEARTS ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR NATION ♪
♪ WE SING OUR PRAISE
IN LIGHT OF YOU ♪
♪ SPIRIT OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ WE SING A PRAISE FOR YOU ♪
[CHEERING]
Mandela: AFRICA!
MAYIBUYE!
Crowd: MAYIBUYE!
AMANDLA!
[CHEERING]
Mandela: NOW THAT I’M BACK,
I HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY
TO CONCERN MYSELF WITH MY WIFE
AND TO TRY AND ASSURE HER
THAT HER PROBLEMS
WILL NOW BE SHARED
BY BOTH OF US.
Narrator: MONTHS AFTER
THE RELEASE OF HER HUSBAND,
WINNIE MANDELA WAS CHARGED
WITH ASSAULT, KIDNAPPING,
AND MURDER.
2 YEARS EARLIER,
STOMPIE MOEKETSIE,
A 14-YEAR-OLD
POLITICAL ACTIVIST,
HAD BEEN ABDUCTED
BY HER BODYGUARDS
AND BROUGHT TO HER HOME.
HE WAS FOUND LATER
WITH HIS THROAT SLIT.
George Bizos:
NELSON NEVER BELIEVED
THAT SHE WAS RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE KILLING OF STOMPIE.
HE STOOD BY HER,
DESPITE A DIFFICULT
PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP.
KNOWING HIM AS WELL AS I DO,
I WOULD HAVE EXPECTED HIM
TO DO PRECISELY WHAT HE DID.
HE IS A PARTICULARLY…
UH…LOYAL PERSON.
[CHEERING AND WHISTLING]
EVEN THEIR OWN COURT…
FOUND US NOT HAVING
ASSAULTED ANY CHILD!
WE DID NOT MURDER STOMPIE.
WE WERE FOUND
GUILTY BY THE MEDIA.
AMANDLA! AMANDLA!
[SHOUTING]
[GUNSHOT]
Narrator: WITH
THE WHITE MINORITY GOVERNMENT
NO LONGER FIRMLY IN CONTROL,
A STRUGGLE FOR POWER
ERUPTED.
THE ANC
HAD MAJORITY SUPPORT,
AND ITS MEMBERS
DEMANDED IMMEDIATE CHANGE.
INKATHA, A MOSTLY ZULU PARTY
LED BY BUTHELEZI,
INSISTED ON RECOGNITION
AS A MAJOR FORCE.
Narrator: THE NEW
FASCIST EXTREME RIGHT
WANTED
A SEPARATE WHITE HOMELAND.
THE GOVERNMENT
OF DeKLERK DID LITTLE
TO CONTROL THE VIOLENCE.
MR. MANDELA
IS IN A MEETING.
WHO’S CALLING, PLEASE?
…PERCEPTION THAT
THERE’S ANC, INKATHA,
AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE.
AND EVERYBODY EXPLAIN
THAT APARTHEID HAS BEEN
A VIOLENT SYSTEM,
THAT CONTROL OF PEOPLE
WAS ACHIEVED THROUGH
BRUTAL SUPPRESSION,
USING
THE SECURITY FORCES,
USING THEIR SURROGATES.
RIGHT NOW,
WHAT HAS HAPPENED…
THE INTERNAL STABILITY
UNIT HAS ACTUALLY
GONE TO A CLINIC,
AND THEY HAVE SHOT IT DOWN.
ARE WE CERTAIN THAT IT WAS
THE INTERNAL STABILITY UNIT?
YES.
WHO SAW IT?
THEY ARE SAYING
NOW THAT IT WAS
THE INTERNAL
STABILITY UNIT
THAT WAS SHOOTING
AT THE CLINIC–
BUT WHO ACTUALLY
SAW THEM?
AT WHAT TIME
OF THE DAY WAS IT?
WELL, WE HAVEN’T
GOT THOSE STATISTICS,
BUT I THINK
WE CAN FIND THEM.
Jessie Duarte: YES,
MR. MANDELA WANTS TO SPEAK
TO THE MINISTER VERY URGENTLY.
HOLD ON, PLEASE.
Jessie Duarte:
THE FIRST MEETING
I HAD WITH HIM,
IT WAS ABOUT 5 MINUTES.
ALL HE DID WAS TO SAY,
“LOOK, I’D LIKE YOU
TO COME WORK IN MY OFFICE.”
AND I THOUGHT, “GOOD GOD.”
YOU KNOW, THIS MAN–
IT WAS LIKE LOOKING–
FACING YOUR OWN HERO.
MY FIRST IMPRESSION
WAS THAT HE WAS
EXCEPTIONALLY DIGNIFIED.
UM, VERY GENTLE, VERY KIND,
VERY STRAIGHTFORWARD.
THOSE ARE THE THINGS
THAT ARE MADIBA FOR ME.
Narrator: AFTER 27 YEARS
OF ISOLATION IN PRISON,
MANDELA BECAME A CENTRAL FIGURE
IN THE NEGOTIATIONS
FOR THE CREATION
OF A NEW SOUTH AFRICA.
WE RESENT THAT ANY PARTY
WITH THE GOVERNMENT
SHOULD REACH AN UNDERSTANDING
AND MAKE A DECISION
WHICH IMPACTS ON
THE REST OF SOUTH AFRICANS
WITHOUT ANY REPRESENTATION
OF THE REST OF US.
[CHANTING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: MY MESSAGE…
TO THOSE OF YOU
INVOLVED IN THIS BATTLE
OF BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER
IS THIS…
TAKE YOUR GUNS…
YOUR KNIVES…
AND YOUR PANGAS…
AND THROW THEM INTO THE SEA!
OUR NEW NATION…
WILL INCLUDE
BLACKS AND WHITES,
ZULUS AND AFRIKANERS,
AND SPEAKERS
OF EVERY OTHER LANGUAGE!
AN ORGANIZATION
WHICH REMAINS COMMITTED
TO AN ARMED STRUGGLE
CANNOT BE FULLY TRUSTED,
CANNOT BE TRUSTED COMPLETELY
WHEN IT ALSO COMMITS ITSELF TO
PEACEFULLY NEGOTIATED SOLUTIONS.
THE ANC HAS NOT HONORED
IMPORTANT UNDERTAKINGS
AND HAS RESORTED
TO DELAYING TACTICS.
Mandela:
I AM GRAVELY CONCERNED
ABOUT THE BEHAVIOR
OF MR. DeKLERK.
EVEN THE HEAD
OF AN ILLEGITIMATE…
DISCREDITED…
MINORITY REGIME AS HIS
HAS CERTAIN MORAL STANDARDS
TO UPHOLD.
HE HAS ABUSED HIS POSITION
BECAUSE HE HOPED
THAT I WOULD NOT REPLY.
HE WAS COMPLETELY MISTAKEN.
I AM REPLYING NOW.
[APPLAUSE]
Narrator: IN AN ATTEMPT
TO STOP THE NEGOTIATIONS,
THE FAR RIGHT STORMED
THE CONFERENCE SITE.
[SHOUTING]
[WOMAN SCREAMS]
Narrator:
DESPITE ALL ATTEMPTS
TO PREVENT THE ELECTIONS,
A DATE WAS SET–
APRIL 27, 1994.
Jessie Duarte:
HE DIDN’T SPEAK ABOUT IT.
HE NEVER DISCUSSED IT.
MADIBA CAN’T TALK ABOUT
THINGS THAT REALLY
HURT HIM VERY MUCH.
HE CAN’T. BUT…
HE THEN SAID, “TOMORROW
I’M GOING TO ANNOUNCE
THAT I WILL BE HAVING
A LEGAL SEPARATION
FROM MY WIFE.”
AND I WAS VERY WORRIED
BECAUSE MADIBA NEVER
EVER SPOKE TO ME
IN THAT KIND
OF FORMAL WAY WHERE YOU
WOULD SAY SOMETHING–
IT WAS–BUT IT WAS–
I KNOW
THAT HE WAS VERY HURT.
THE RELATIONSHIP…
BETWEEN
MYSELF AND MY WIFE…
COMRADE
NOMZAMA WINNIE MANDELA…
HAS BECOME THE SUBJECT…
OF MUCH MEDIA SPECULATION.
MY LOVE FOR HER
REMAINS UNDIMINISHED.
HOWEVER…
IN VIEW OF THE TENSIONS
THAT HAVE ARISEN
OWING TO DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN OURSELVES
IN A NUMBER OF ISSUES
IN RECENT MONTHS,
WE HAVE MUTUALLY AGREED
THAT A SEPARATION
WOULD BE BEST
FOR EACH ONE OF US.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,
I HOPE YOU’LL APPRECIATE…
THE PAIN
I HAVE GONE THROUGH.
IT WAS A DECISION
WHICH WAS
IN FACT TRAGIC,
BUT IT HAD TO BE TAKEN,
AND I HAVE TAKEN IT.
AND I THINK IT WAS
A CORRECT DECISION
TO TAKE.
BUT I DON’T WANT
TO GET INTO DETAILS
ABOUT THOSE MATTERS.
I THINK IT HURT HIM
BECAUSE, I THINK,
EVEN NOW HE HONESTLY…
UM, HE LOVES WINNIE
VERY MUCH,
AND I THINK PEOPLE
NEED TO UNDERSTAND THAT.
THIS IS THE ONE PERSON
FOR 27 YEARS
WHO WAS CONSTANTLY
HIS FRIEND.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Announcer:
THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE
LAUREATES FOR 1993…
NELSON MANDELA AND
FREDERIK WILLEM DeKLERK.
Mandela:
THIS IS NOT A TIME FOR ME
TO SPEAK OF OUR JUSTIFIED
GRIEVANCES OF THE PAST.
AS SOUTH AFRICANS…
THIS IS THE TIME
FOR US TO SPEAK…
OF WHAT IS BEST FOR
THE FUTURE OF OUR COUNTRY.
MR. DeKLERK AND I
WILL CONTINUE TO BE
POLITICAL OPPONENTS.
I HAVE, NEVERTHELESS,
DECIDED TO ACCEPT
THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE
JOINTLY WITH HIM…
AS A GESTURE
OF RECONCILIATION.
JUST TO SEE THAT
WE’RE STILL FRIENDS.
Man: THAT’S RIGHT.
[CHUCKLES]
FRIENDLY OPPONENTS.
[SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela:
WE WANT TO UNITE OUR PEOPLE.
NOT ONLY AFRICANS,
COLOREDS, AND INDIANS.
WE WANT TO UNITE COLOREDS,
AFRICANS, INDIANS, AND WHITES.
THAT IS WHY WE ARE TALKING
TO THE NATIONAL PARTY
WHO HAVE BEEN
KILLING OUR PEOPLE.
WE WANT THIS PEACE,
THIS PERIOD OF RECONCILIATION.
THAT SPIRIT MUST NOT ONLY
BRING THE GOVERNMENT
AND OUR SIDE TOGETHER,
IT MUST BUILD–
BRING OUR OWN PEOPLE,
THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN
WORKING WITH THE ENEMY,
THEY MUST NOW WORK WITH US
IN ORDER TO BUILD
THIS NEW SOUTH AFRICA.
THAT STADIUM ROOF
COLLAPSED BEFORE WE CAME?
BEFORE WE
GOT THERE, YES.
OH, I SEE. I DIDN’T
EVEN NOTICE IT, YOU KNOW.
27–29 PEOPLE
WERE INJURED,
BUT THERE
WERE NO DEATHS.
Duarte:
SPEED UP HERE.
THANK YOU.
Mandela: I’M SO HAPPY
TO SEE YOU. VERY HAPPY.
Duarte: OK,
WHICH CREW IS IT?
I’M SORRY, YOU’RE
REALLY HOLDING US UP,
SO YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE
TO MOVE FASTER, OK?
THANKS.
I’M WALKING
AT THE SAME SPEED
AS THEY ARE.
BUT WE WANT YOU
TO MOVE FASTER SO THAT
HE CAN MOVE FASTER.
PLEASE.
LOOK, I MEAN–
HE’S JUST TURNED INTO
A WARD THERE, MA’AM.
Duarte: MADIBA,
DON’T YOU HAVE
OTHER CLOTHES?
IS THAT THE ONLY
SHIRT YOU’VE GOT?
EVERYBODY
JUST LOOKS AT MY FACE
AND DOESN’T LOOK
AT MY CLOTHES.
NO, NO, NO.
I CAN ASSURE YOU.
NO, NO.
WHAT HAPPENED?
YOU DON’T HAVE
A SHIRT?
YOU DON’T HAVE
A BUSINESS–
NO. WHAT TIME
DO WE GO AWAY?
AT 9:00.
NO, I’LL BE ALL RIGHT.
I’LL BE ALL RIGHT.
I DON’T THINK SO.
YOU’VE BEEN
WEARING THAT SHIRT
FOR 2 DAYS NOW.
YEAH, I WORE–
I WORE IT YESTERDAY,
BUT, UH, I’LL CHANGE
BEFORE WE LEAVE.
OK, OK.
Mandela: WHY SHOULD WE AGREE
TO A THING LIKE THAT?
WHERE WAS THE ARGUMENT?
AND YOU MEAN OUR FELLOWS
AGREED WITHOUT REFERRING
THIS MATTER TO US?
WELL, I TAKE STRONG
EXCEPTION TO THAT.
YOU MUST TELL CYRIL.
I DON’T THINK YOU SHOULD TAKE
A DECISION OF THAT NATURE
WITHOUT LETTING ME KNOW.
I’M TOTALLY OPPOSED TO THAT,
BUT YOU CAN GO ON.
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[CHEERING]
[CHANTING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[CROWD CHEERING]
Duarte: OUR ELECTIONS OFFICE
THERE HAS BEEN BOMBED.
WHAT?
THE ANC OFFICE INVOLVED
IS IN THE ORANGE FREE STATE.
Man: WHEN,
THIS MORNING?
THIS MORNING, AND–
Woman:
BLOEMFONTEIN.
[WHISPERING]
They say that the ANC
office in Bloemfontein
in Orange Free State
was bombed last night.
IF THEY THINK THAT
BY KILLING OUR PEOPLE,
THEY ARE GOING TO
STOP THE ELECTION
UPON THE 27th OF APRIL,
THEY LIVE
IN A FOOL’S PARADISE.
THAT ELECTION…
IS GOING TO TAKE PLACE
WITH OR WITHOUT
THE RIGHT WING.
YES, GOOD MORNING.
I’M CALLING
FROM THE OFFICE
OF MR. MANDELA.
COULD YOU PUT US
THROUGH TO THE OFFICE
OF THE MINISTER, PLEASE?
I JUST WANT
TO READ YOU THE DOCUMENT
WHICH HAS BEEN SENT TO ME.
“13 HOUSES TORCHED
SINCE LAST NIGHT.
“BY WELL-ARMED I.F.P.
HOSTILE GUERRILLAS.
AT LEAST 3 DEATHS
REPORTED.”
I MUST CONFESS THAT
I’M HAVING DIFFICULTIES
WITH GENERAL VAN DER NEWE.
YES, HE TOLD ME
EVENTUALLY,
AFTER I PUT A LOT
OF PRESSURE ON HIM,
THAT THERE’S VERY LITTLE
THAT THE POLICE CAN DO
ABOUT THE SITUATION
IN THE TOWN.
Narrator: 8 MONTHS
BEFORE THE ELECTION,
INKATHA MARCHED INTO
DOWNTOWN JOHANNESBURG,
WHERE THEY CLASHED WITH
THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS.
[GUNSHOTS]
[SIRENS]
Narrator: WITHOUT
INKATHA PARTICIPATION,
A PEACEFUL ELECTION
WAS IMPOSSIBLE.
LAST-DITCH ATTEMPTS
TO BRING BUTHELEZI ON BOARD
SEEMED TO GET NOWHERE.
Mandela: ONE THING
THAT WE MUST MAKE CLEAR
IS THAT
THE 27th OF APRIL
CANNOT BE POSTPONED,
AND SECONDLY
THAT THE INTEGRITY
AND SOVEREIGNTY
OF OUR COUNTRY
CANNOT BE VIOLATED.
WE’VE COME TO THE BRINK
OF A VERY SERIOUS
SITUATION.
AN ANC PROPOSAL
CONTAINING PROVISIONS
TO BE IMPLEMENTED
BY A GOVERNMENT
OF NATIONAL UNITY
AFTER ELECTIONS
WAS FOUND TO BE
UNACCEPTABLE
BY HIS MAJESTY
AND HIS DELEGATION.
I WOULD LIKE TO WARN YOU
THAT WE SHOULD HAVE NO
EXAGGERATED EXPECTATIONS
AS TO WHAT THIS TASK GROUP
IS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE.
I DON’T KNOW
WHAT ELSE CAN BE DONE
WITH BUTHELEZI.
UH, BUT I DON’T
WANT TO DISCUSS
THE MATTER WITH YOU
OVER THE TELEPHONE.
I MAY. I’M COMING
TO SEE MR. DeKLERK
TOMORROW.
AND, UH, I WOULDN’T
MIND, YOU SEE,
IF THE SENIOR
MINISTERS ARE THERE,
BECAUSE THIS
IS A VERY SERIOUS
SITUATION.
Narrator: WITH TIME RUNNING OUT,
A SECRET DEAL WAS STRUCK
BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT,
THE ANC, AND BUTHELEZI.
Buthelezi:
I AM PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE
THAT THE INKATHA
FREEDOM PARTY
WILL CONTEST ELECTIONS
IN THE NATIONAL
AND PROVINCIAL LEVELS,
EVEN THOUGH
IT’S SO LATE IN THE DAY.
THIS AGREEMENT
IS A LEAP FORWARD…
FOR PEACE,
RECONCILIATION,
NATION BUILDING,
AND AN INCLUSIVE
ELECTION PROCESS.
Radio Newscaster:
702, WELCOME ON BOARD
THE JOHN BURKE SHOW

ON 702 TALK RADIO
ON THIS HISTORIC WEDNESDAY,
THE 27th OF APRIL.
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
♪ VOTE ♪
Man: ♪ GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ YOU GOTTA MAKE IT
‘CAUSE IT MAKE A GOOD LIFE ♪
♪ YOU GOTTA MAKE A VOTE ♪
Woman:
♪ 400 YEARS
OF AFRICAN HISTORY ♪
♪ MOTHERLAND
CRY NO MORE ♪
♪ 400 YEARS
OF AFRICAN MISERY ♪
♪ MOTHERLAND
WEEP NO MORE ♪
I’VE NEVER VOTE
FOR MANY YEARS,
SINCE I WAS BORN.
I AM THE KING
OF SOUTH AFRICA.
VERY, VERY, VERY HAPPY.
FROM NOW ON,
THERE WILL BE PEACE
IN THIS COUNTRY.
I FEEL LIKE I’M GIVING
BIRTH TO A NEW BABY.
I THINK I’M ON TOP
OF THE WORLD.
I’M VERY PROUD
OF THE NEW SOUTH AFRICA.
♪ ALONG COMES
A MAN OF VISION ♪
♪ THINKING ABOUT
THE EVIL MAN’S MIND ♪
♪ APARTHEID IS GONE NOW ♪
♪ HE’S GONNA BE
THE LEAD MAN ♪
♪ EVERYONE TOGETHER
IN HEART ♪
♪ BROTHER AND SISTERS
HAND IN HAND ♪
♪ MOTHERLAND
CRY NO MORE ♪
♪ MOTHERLAND
WEEP NO MORE ♪
Duarte: THE CHIEF JUSTICE
WILL THEN ANNOUNCE THE RESULTS.
NELSON MANDELA,
STATE PRESIDENT.
THE BEST THING
IS TO SAY–
SO WE JUST INVITE THEM
TO BE BACK LATER.
YEAH, FINE, YEAH.
Duarte: AND THERE ARE 120
HEADS OF STATE COMING,
AND THERE IS NO WAY–120.
YO.
THERE IS NO WAY THAT YOU
ARE GOING TO BE ABLE
TO ACCORD THEM ALL
THE RESPECT YOU SHOULD
IN THE SHORT TIME WE HAVE.
I SEE.
SOME WILL GET 10 MINUTES,
SOME WILL GET 5 MINUTES,
SOME WILL GET A HANDSHAKE.
THE DRESS
IN THE EVENING.
WHAT IS THE DRESS?
WHAT DID WE DECIDE,
BY THE WAY?
YOU MUST–WELL,
IT’S ACCEPTABLE
FOR YOU TO WEAR,
AND IT’S NOT ACCEPTABLE
FOR YOU NOT TO WEAR A BOW TIE.
A BLACK BOW TIE.
I WOULD LIKE SOMETHING
WHICH INDICATES
THAT WE ARE NOT FAR
FROM THE LIFESTYLE
OF OUR PEOPLE.
A BOW TIE IN THE EVENING
IS FORMAL, BUT FESTIVE.
AND YOU LOOK
SO HANDSOME IN IT.
WE’VE WORN IT
IN, UH, WASHINGTON.
YOU’VE WORN IT
AT THE CARLTON.
ODD THING,
BOW TIE, MAN.
IT’S NOT SOMETHING
THAT, UH–
I WOULD FEEL
MOST UNCOMFORTABLE.
EVERY TIME I PUT ON
THAT THING,
I CAN’T EVEN TALK.
I FIND IT DIFFICULT
EVEN TO TALK–
[WOMEN LAUGHING]
AND, UH…
I’LL PREFER
JUST A SUIT.
OK.
BUT IT MUST BE
A DIGNIFIED SUIT.
I…
NELSON ROLIHLAHLA MANDELA,
DO HEREBY SWEAR
TO DEVOTE MYSELF
TO THE WELL-BEING
OF THE REPUBLIC
AND ALL ITS PEOPLE.
WILL YOU PLEASE RAISE
YOUR RIGHT HAND
AND SAY,
“SO HELP ME, GOD”?
SO HELP ME, GOD.
♪ OH, YES ♪
♪ HE ROSE ♪
♪ AND HIS SPIRIT
WAS NEVER BROKEN ♪
♪ NEVER BROKEN ♪
♪ OH, OH, OH ♪
♪ MY BLACK PRESIDENT ♪
♪ LET US REJOICE
FOR OUR PRESIDENT ♪
♪ LET US SING
FOR OUR PRESIDENT ♪
♪ LET US PRAY
FOR OUR PRESIDENT ♪
♪ LET US SING ♪
♪ LET US DANCE ♪
♪ FOR A DIVINE,
A DIVINE FREEDOM ♪
♪ OOH, OOH, AH ♪
♪ WE THANK YOU, LORD ♪
♪ FOR LISTENING
TO OUR PRAYERS ♪
♪ AMEN ♪
♪ OH, OH, OH, OH, OH ♪
♪ OUR BLACK PRESIDENT… ♪
[PEOPLE SINGING
IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]
[MABEL MANDELA SPEAKING
NATIVE LANGUAGE]
Mandela: DEATH
IS SOMETHING INEVITABLE.
WHEN A MAN HAS DONE
WHAT HE CONSIDERS
TO BE HIS DUTY
TO HIS PEOPLE
AND HIS COUNTRY,
HE CAN REST IN PEACE.
I BELIEVE I HAVE MADE
THAT EFFORT,
AND THAT
IS THEREFORE WHY
I WILL SLEEP
FOR THE ETERNITY.
CAPTIONING MADE POSSIBLE BY
POLYGRAM FILMED ENTERTAINMENT
CAPTIONING PERFORMED BY
THE NATIONAL CAPTIONING
INSTITUTE, INC.
PUBLIC PERFORMANCE OF CAPTIONS
PROHIBITED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF
NATIONAL CAPTIONING INSTITUTE
♪ OH, MANDELA ♪
♪ SON OF AFRICA ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR FREEDOM ♪
♪ SPIRIT OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ OH, MADIBA ♪
♪ WE HOLD YOU
IN OUR HEARTS ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR NATION ♪
♪ WE SING OUR PRAISE
IN LIGHT OF YOU ♪
♪ MANDELA ♪
♪ MADIBA ♪
♪ ALL HIS LIFE,
BORN TO LEAD ♪
♪ SYMBOL TO THE WORLD ♪
♪ FOR MANY, MANY YEARS ♪
♪ WE WAITED FOR YOU ♪
♪ YOU OPENED UP
OUR HEARTS ♪
♪ BELIEVING WHAT IS TRUE ♪
♪ A NATION REJOICED ♪
♪ WITH GRATITUDE ♪
♪ YOUR GUIDANCE
IS OUR LIGHT ♪
♪ GIVING MEANING
TO OUR LIVES ♪
♪ OH, MANDELA ♪
♪ SON OF AFRICA ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR FREEDOM ♪
♪ SPIRIT OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ OH, MADIBA ♪
♪ WE HOLD YOU
IN OUR HEARTS ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR NATION ♪
♪ WE SING OUR PRAISE
IN LIGHT OF YOU ♪
♪ MANDELA ♪
♪ MADIBA ♪
♪ A HUMBLE TEACHER
WHO STANDS TALL ♪
♪ WHO SHAPED OUR DESTINY ♪
♪ THE WORLD HONORS YOU ♪
♪ A NATION SET FREE, YEAH ♪
♪ YOUR HONESTY FOR LIFE ♪
♪ TAUGHT EQUALITY ♪
♪ YEAH ♪
♪ OH, MANDELA ♪
♪ SON OF AFRICA ♪
♪ SON OF AFRICA ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR FREEDOM ♪
♪ SPIRIT OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ OH, MADIBA ♪
♪ WE HOLD YOU
IN OUR HEARTS ♪
♪ FATHER OF OUR NATION ♪
♪ WE SING OUR PRAISE
IN LIGHT OF YOU ♪
♪ SPIRIT OF OUR LOVE ♪
♪ WE SING A PRAISE
FOR YOU ♪

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